Hypotension is a very common complication in the anesthetized patient, especially when the patient is maintained with inhalant anesthetics. Blood pressure is simple to measure in the anesthetized patient, and is very helpful to monitor depth of anesthesia and overall patient welfare.
Liver disease patients can present with a diverse clinical spectrum. Patients with mild liver disease can be expected to have fewer problems with general anesthesia than patients with severe, fulminant disease.
Traditionally, analgesic drugs like opioids, alpha-2 agents, local anesthetics, NSAIDs and dissociative anesthetics have been administered as a single dose treatment. When drugs are given in this manner, the patient will experience “peaks” and “troughs” in the plasma drug level.
The purpose of this talk today is to discuss a variety of issues for general anesthesia of patients undergoing non-elective procedures. This will include anesthetic tips for urinary tract obstruction, cesarean section, gastric dilation volvulus, and foreign body removal.
Endoscopy is the process of looking inside the body by inserting a rigid or flexible tube into the body and examining an image of the interior of an organ or cavity. An additional instrument may be inserted in order to biopsy tissue or retrieve foreign objects.
Rigid endoscopy can be performed in many reptiles by passing the endoscope through the oral cavity and into the stomach. Endoscopy is primarily used to obtain gastric biopsies or to retrieve foreign bodies from the stomach.
Exotic small mammals (formally known as pocket pets) are challenging creatures to work with. When working with dogs and cats, it is usually easy to place an intravenous catheter, intubate, provide fluid therapy, hook up an ECG, place a blood pressure cuff, and keep track of the core body temperature.
The risk of anesthesia is higher in emergency cases compared with elective cases. Most of these patients are compromised and this increases the danger of anesthesia, especially in cases when there is no time to optimize the condition of the patient before anesthesia.