With a vomiting dog, it is critical to distinguish between pancreatitis and nonspecific gastroenteritis. This is because the standard-of-care treatment of pancreatitis is no longer identical to treatment of nonspecific gastroenteritis. Accurate diagnosis will guide you to the best treatment plan for your patient.
Adverse reactions to food are quite common in both dogs and cats. However, contrary to common believe, only few cases of adverse food reactions are due to true food allergies. Adverse food reactions represent a group of disorders that are defined by gastrointestinal, dermatological, and less commonly respiratory signs in response to ingestion of a certain food. It should be remembered that there are other specific conditions that are either thought to be due to or worsened by diet that are not considered adverse food reactions such as acute pancreatitis, megaesophagus, or portosystemic shunts.
Liver disease is common in both dogs and cats, but acute liver disease is far less common than chronic hepatic disease in either species. Also, it should be noted that many patients with an acute onset of clinical signs suggestive of liver disease actually do have chronic liver disease.
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome, which is caused by insufficient synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes by the exocrine portion of the pancreas, leading to insufficient activity of digestive enzymes in the lumen of the small intestine.
The liver is an important organ, responsible for breakdown of nutrients and for the synthesis of many molecules such as albumin, coagulation factors, cholesterol, glucose, and many others. The liver has an enormous regenerative capacity. For example, in humans half of a liver can be transplanted from a living donor to a recipient and within 6 weeks both the transplanted liver and the remaining liver of the donor will reach a hepatic volume.
Clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease, such as vomiting and diarrhea are extremely common in small animal patients. When seeking advice from a veterinarian pet owners expect an accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy of the problem.
A small intestinal dysbiosis is an alteration of the small intestinal microbiota in either composition or numbers. There are several different terms that describe similar clinical conditions: antibiotic-responsive diarrhea, tylosin-responsive diarrhea, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and intestinal dysbiosis.
Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is a cyclic tetrapyrrol that contains a corrin ring with a cobalt atom in the center. Cobalamin is actually made up of a group of compounds and is exclusively derived from bacterial sources. The biologically active forms of this vitamin are methylcobalamin (required for methyl-group transfers) and adenosylcobalamin (required for adenosyl-group transfers), but there are other molecules that belong to this group of vitamins, such as hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin.