Primary injury is a direct result of the initial insult, is complete at the time of presentation and cannot be altered. Secondary brain injury is an alteration of brain tissue, either anatomical or physiological, which occurs after the primary injury, and can be prevented or ameliorated with optimal supportive care.
Vomiting is one of the most common medical presentations to the emergency room. It is not uncommon for the dog or cat to eat grass or their food and vomit – and subsequently go about their lives unaffected. So – when is vomiting an emergency? While there are no simple, nor clear cut answers, the simple guidelines in the box can guide the triage nurse or doctor.
Abdominal hemorrhage can result from disruption of a "blood" organ such as the liver or spleen, damage or avulsion of an abdominal artery or vein, or coagulation defect. The presence of blood in the abdomen can result in acute and severe pain from the abdominal cavity, abdominal organs or the nerves, muscles, fascia or skin associated with the abdomen.
Small animals in crisis will present for a myriad of reasons: vomiting, diarrhea, bloat, urinary obstruction, dystocia, trauma...the list is endless. A rapid assessment must determine whether the animal has decompensated or is likely to decompensate. Decompensation will be directly related to Airway, Breathing and/or Circulatory failure.
Acute respiratory distress (ARD) is the sudden onset of rapid and/or labored respiratory. It can be caused by pathology or obstruction associated with the nasal passages, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, pulmonary vasculature or lymphatics, pulmonary innervation, chest wall, diaphragm, or pleural space.