Portosystemic shunt (PSS) is an abnormal vessel that shunts portal blood from the splanchnic circulation to flow directly to the systemic circulation by passing the liver. Toxins, hormones, nutrients, escaping bacteria, and exogenous drugs also bypass the liver resulting in hepatic encephalopathy (HE).
Gastrointestinal surgery is performed very commonly in small animal for biopsy, removal of a foreign body, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, resection of a necrotic segment of intestine, resection of necrotic portion of the stomach, and resection of a neoplasia.
There are a number of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures that are currently performed using laparoscopy. Many of these procedures require multiple trocar/cannula portals, specific minimally invasive surgical instruments, loop ligatures, clip applicators and monopolar electrosurgery.
Uroliths can be found in the renal pelvis, the ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. The most common locations are the bladder and the urethra. A higher incidence of calcium oxalate has been reported in the ureter and kidney in cats.
The thoracic cavity is lined entirely by a serous membrane known as pleura. The pleura is divided into visceral pleura which covers the lungs and parietal pleura which covers the remaining thoracic cavity.
The laryngeal functions are to regulate airflow, voice production, and prevent inhalation of food. If the intrinsic muscles and/or the nerve supply of the larynx are not normal laryngeal functions are compromised.
Brachycephalic breeds (Shih Tzu, boxer English and French Bulldog, Pekingese, pug and Boston terrier) have a shortened skull compared to the other breeds. Compression of the nasal passage and distortion of the pharyngeal tissue result in an increase in airway resistance.
Nutritional support is required for anorexic patients, debilitated patients, patients in a high catabolic stage (peritonitis, sepsis, burns), or stressed patients (surgical patient). Nutritional support allows a faster soft tissue healing, a better immune system response and a faster recovery from the patient.
Gastric dilatation volvulus syndrome is an acute medical and surgical condition due to several pathophysiological effects occurring secondary to gastric distension and mal-positioning. It occurs most commonly in large, deep chested dogs.