At birth, the autonomic nervous system and the baroreceptor reflexes are immature, with the ANS maturing by day 10 and the baroreceptor system maturing by 4 weeks. Due to this immature state, it is difficult for the neonate to respond to changes in blood pressure.
The principles surrounding the initial approach to the patient with abdominal trauma are similar to those in a patient that has sustained any form of trauma. Rapid assessment of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems should be performed, and the presence of shock should be identified.
Many of the reproductive abnormalities that present as emergencies are straight-forward and relatively easy to resolve. Treatment of these diseases, however, requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology as well as the options available for dealing with such emergencies.
Neurological emergencies are common in small animal practice. As with other body systems, infections, neoplasms, trauma, inflammatory processes, congenital and hereditary diseases all affect the central and peripheral nervous systems causing a range of mild to severe conditions.
The transfusion of blood products to treat acute blood losses, coagulopathies, and severe anemia has become indispensable in the care of critically ill veterinary patients. As with any therapy, the risks, cost and potential benefits associated with the use of blood products must be carefully considered and every effort should be made to minimize the occurrence of adverse effects.
In its earliest forms, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is most likely as old as human society itself. Depictions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation appear in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, and descriptions appear in the bible. Modern CPR techniques emerged in the late 1950's and early 1960's.
Beginning with Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin there has been an ever escalating arms race between microbes and the doctors that treat life-threatening infection. Fleming's discovery saved countless lives; however, it did not take long for bacteria to respond by developing mechanisms for resistance.
Cats with respiratory distress represent a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the small animal veterinarian. The most common causes of feline respiratory distress are pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, asthma, and neoplasia. Available methods to try to elucidate the etiology of an individual cat's respiratory distress include evaluation of historical and physical examination findings, thoracic radiography, cytology and ultrasonography or echocardiography.
Many of the reproductive abnormalities that present as emergencies are straight- forward and relatively easy to resolve. Treatment of these diseases, however, requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology as well as the options available for dealing with such emergencies.