Anesthetic mishaps can lead to patient morbidity and mortality. Most problems anesthesia-related problems can be prevented by advanced planning, training, patient monitoring, and the development of standard operating protocols.
I'll review the pathophysiological changes associated with the common congenital and acquired cardiac defects in small animal medicine and discuss the characteristics of anesthetic drugs that may make them desirable of undesirable for each problem.
One of the most important assessments a veterinarian can make is whether or not oxygen delivery is adequate. Unfortunately, it is not possible to easily or directly assess oxygen delivery in our patients.
Cesarean section may be indicated for animals with prolonged gestation periods, refractory uterine inertia (primary or secondary), or those with obstructive dystocias. In addition, elective cesarean section may be done in those breeds with consistent fetal oversize (i.e., English bulldogs).
The liver is integral to the production of clotting factors and albumin, and the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, fats. In addition, a variety of other endogenous and exogenous substances are metabolized in the liver. Indeed, the liver plays a role in the elimination of most anesthetic drugs.
The capnograph is a noninvasive monitoring device that can provide information on ventilation (pulmonary function), blood flow, and equipment function. Knowledge of respiratory and cardiovascular physiology is essential to the understanding of capnography.
The presence of disease has been shown to be positively associated with increased anesthesia-related mortality. Indeed, the possibility of rapid decompensation when sedative or anesthetic drugs are administered in the presence of respiratory disease makes anesthesia in these patients particularly challenging.