Opioids are classically used for analgesia in cases of moderate to severe pain. They can have other uses and effects, however. Sedation, calming/euphoria, and chemical restraint can all be achieved through opioid use in animals.
The term adverse drug reaction includes any undesired effect of a drug, including a lack of the desired effect. Adverse reactions to veterinary drugs can range from minor to severe and life-threatening.
The use of compounded products in veterinary medicine is a common practice due to the lack of approved veterinary drugs and convenient, palatable administration forms. There is no regulation of pharmacies that compound drugs for veterinary use. There are no standard formulas available to pharmacies to guide them on the optimum methods for ensuring a quality product.
Antimicrobial drugs are the most frequently prescribed drugs in veterinary medicine. They are also frequently used incorrectly, which can lead to treatment failure and the development of resistant bacteria.
Clinically significant drug interactions are rarely reported in veterinary medicine, however the incidence is probably far greater than is reported. With the introduction of more and more veterinary drugs, as well as the use of more human drugs in animals, the incidence is likely to increase in the next few years.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been a mainstay of veterinary analgesia for many years. They are frequently used for the treatment of lameness, abdominal pain, inflammation, and fever. Current formulations are cheap, easy to use, and well absorbed.