Successful, efficient, sterile placement of intravenous (IV) catheters should be mastered by all providing care of the emergent patient. It should be understood that placement of short, large-bore peripheral catheters provide the most rapid means for intravascular volume expansion.
The clinical utility of ultrasonography in the emergency room has been expanding in recent years. Two techniques recently presented are known as abdominal focused assessment with sonogram for trauma (AFAST) and thoracic focused assessment with sonogram for trauma (TFAST).
Blood component transfusion is generally provided as supportive therapy for correction of one or more hematologic and/or hemostatic deficiencies, until the underlying disease process can be controlled or corrected. Blood component administration and its immediate endpoints often are only one part of a general therapeutic plan.
The first published article on cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR) was published over 50 years ago, entitled "Closed-Chest Cardiac Massage" and was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Kouwenhoven, 1960). Despite this long history, even today CPCR is unsuccessful in the vast majority of attempts.
Disturbances of acid-base equilibrium occur in a wide variety of critical illnesses and are among the most commonly encountered disorders in the intensive care unit (ICU). In addition to reflecting the seriousness of the underlying disease, disturbances in hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) have important physiologic effects.