When presented with a case of inappropriate urination, be sure to ask the owners specific questions that will help guide your rule-out list and focus your diagnostic test selections. Define the clinical signs along with some possible differentials.
A. Frequent, large-volume urination—pyelonephritis; drug effect; metabolic or endocrine disease
B. Frequent, small-volume urination—lower urinary tract infection/inflammation
C. Straining to urinate—obstruction in the bladder (trigone) or urethra
D. Blood in the urine—bladder calculi or crystalluria; thrombocytopenia; upper or lower urinary tract inflammation