Reference ranges are established by testing a group of apparently healthy normal animals. But even if a value falls within the reference range, it may not be normal for that animal if the animal is ill.
Calcium oxalate (CaOx) was the most common (47 percent) mineral in feline uroliths submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center during 2003 (Table 1). More than two-thirds of feline nephroliths were composed of CaOx.
As discussed in last month's Diagnote, the underlying causes of different types of uroliths vary. It follows that medical and/or surgical procedures designed to safely and effectively treat different types of uroliths also vary. The objective of the second part of this series is to provide an overview of risks and benefits associated with surgical and medical therapy of urolithiasis. Therapeutic caveats associated with treatment of specific types of uroliths will be the subject of next month's Diagnote.
Protocols have been developed to promote dissolution of canine and feline struvite uroliths, the dissolution of canine ammonium urate and cystine uroliths, and the prevention of all major types of canine and feline uroliths.