Recently a colleague asked me if I could direct her to a reference source for normal and abnormal drinking and urine volumes of cats and dogs. Although this information is available, it is scattered in different textbooks and journal articles. The primary objective of this Diagnote is to provide this information in one concise location.
Editor's Note: In our ongoing telemedicine series, Dr. Johnny Hoskins presents medical case studies. The format is heavily focused on radiology and ultrasonography and details complicated, yet fairly common cases most veterinarians will be exposed to in practice.
Signalment: Canine, Golden Retriever, 7 years old, male, castrated, 72.2 lbs. The dog presents for progressive worsening PU/PD and generalized weakness for four to five weeks. The dog is showing anorexia and vomiting thick yellow bile since last evening. The dog has collapsing episodes in the rear legs. Therapy has included NPO for two days, intravenous fluids and metoclopramide.
Recently a colleague in private practice asked me for advice about how to treat cystine bladder stones formed by a 5.5 year-old, spayed female Siamese cat. Although textbooks that he consulted contained information about cystine urolithiasis in dogs, he was unable to find recommendations for this disorder in cats. How would you manage this case?
"Why does my dog have dry skin? Didn't I wash off all the shampoo? Am I bathing him too much? Does he need a conditioner?" We have all been asked these questions many times. With the winter months upon us for those in the colder areas of the country, the low humidity often causes humans to have "dry skin". This may be true for our canine patients as well, however dry skin in dogs may be the result of several underlying diseases (Photo 1).
Normal urinary continence. Micturition may be defined as function of the lower urinary tract that encompasses both a storage phase and a voiding phase. During the storage phase of micturition, the urinary bladder, acting as a low-pressure reservoir, is relaxed and fills with urine.
Recently, a colleague in private practice asked my opinion about the likely benefit of obtaining an ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the kidney of an azotemic, isosthenuric, 8-year old domestic shorthair cat. She indicated that evaluation of a serum chemistry profile, hemogram and urinalysis revealed findings consistent with idiopathic chronic renal failure.