Indications for electrocardiography include arrhythmias heard on auscultation, breathing problems, shock, fainting or seizures, cardiac murmurs, and systemic disease that affects the heart (e.g. tumors, kidney dysfunction, heartworm disease).
Recent advances in diagnostic visualization and surgical treatments have stimulated an increased emphasis on early clinical recognition of cranial cruciate ligament pathology. This article describes characteristics of normal and pathologic cranial cruciate ligaments and details clinical techniques to help you diagnose cranial cruciate ligament pathology earlier.
Many veterinarians are uncomfortable when facing a patient with a neurologic problem. However, by taking the time to obtain a good, detailed history and by doing a methodical and thorough neurologic examination, these cases can be both challenging and interesting.