Recently a colleague asked us for advice about how to prevent recurrence of a urolith that contained a nucleus of 100 percent calcium oxalate (CaOx) and a distinct outer layer of 95 percent magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) and 5 percent calcium phosphate (Image 1 and Figure 2, p. 12S).
The radiograph was discovered more than 100 years ago. It has been a stalwart of diagnostic imaging in veterinary medicine. We have grown accustomed to its use. We use it to "rule out" numerous diseases. Unfortunately, we have known that it takes a marked change in the electronic density of the material to be seen radiographically. Some estimates indicate that in bone, radiographic density must change by 30-50 percent (either increase or decrease) in order to be visible on a standard radiograph. Therefore, numerous diseases can be present and escape the detection limit of a radiographic change. We must remember
Signalment: Canine, Greyhound, 2.5 years old, female spayed, 65 lbs. Clinical history: The dog has a persistent urinary tract problem ? hematuria for at least one year according to the owner. The dog improves with antibiotics, but once finished, hematuria starts again. Therapy has included Clavamox.
Recently a colleague asked me if I could direct her to a reference source for normal and abnormal drinking and urine volumes of cats and dogs. Although this information is available, it is scattered in different textbooks and journal articles. The primary objective of this Diagnote is to provide this information in one concise location.
Editor's Note: In our ongoing telemedicine series, Dr. Johnny Hoskins presents medical case studies. The format is heavily focused on radiology and ultrasonography and details complicated, yet fairly common cases most veterinarians will be exposed to in practice.
Signalment: Canine, Golden Retriever, 7 years old, male, castrated, 72.2 lbs. The dog presents for progressive worsening PU/PD and generalized weakness for four to five weeks. The dog is showing anorexia and vomiting thick yellow bile since last evening. The dog has collapsing episodes in the rear legs. Therapy has included NPO for two days, intravenous fluids and metoclopramide.
Recently a colleague in private practice asked me for advice about how to treat cystine bladder stones formed by a 5.5 year-old, spayed female Siamese cat. Although textbooks that he consulted contained information about cystine urolithiasis in dogs, he was unable to find recommendations for this disorder in cats. How would you manage this case?
"Why does my dog have dry skin? Didn't I wash off all the shampoo? Am I bathing him too much? Does he need a conditioner?" We have all been asked these questions many times. With the winter months upon us for those in the colder areas of the country, the low humidity often causes humans to have "dry skin". This may be true for our canine patients as well, however dry skin in dogs may be the result of several underlying diseases (Photo 1).
Normal urinary continence. Micturition may be defined as function of the lower urinary tract that encompasses both a storage phase and a voiding phase. During the storage phase of micturition, the urinary bladder, acting as a low-pressure reservoir, is relaxed and fills with urine.