Recent advances in diagnostic visualization and surgical treatments have stimulated an increased emphasis on early clinical recognition of cranial cruciate ligament pathology. This article describes characteristics of normal and pathologic cranial cruciate ligaments and details clinical techniques to help you diagnose cranial cruciate ligament pathology earlier.
Many veterinarians are uncomfortable when facing a patient with a neurologic problem. However, by taking the time to obtain a good, detailed history and by doing a methodical and thorough neurologic examination, these cases can be both challenging and interesting.
Many veterinarians and technicians do not routinely evaluate blood films microscopically, largely because they lack confidence in either preparing a well-made blood film or in being able to accurately identify important abnormalities.
In this article, I describe the most common clinical signs and physical examination findings in hyperthyroid cats. I also review the available diagnostic methods, including their advantages and disadvantages.
Reference ranges are established by testing a group of apparently healthy normal animals. But even if a value falls within the reference range, it may not be normal for that animal if the animal is ill.