Atropine is a strong parasympathetic blocking agent. When applied topically, it causes pupillary dilatation that may last several days. Topical atropine should be administered only when this degree of pupillary dilatation is desired, which is not often.
A 3-year-old 77-lb (35-kg) neutered male collie was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation of an acute onset of progressive ataxia, tetraparesis, a single tonic-clonic seizure, vomiting, and ptyalism.
Many veterinarians are uncomfortable when facing a patient with a neurologic problem. However, by taking the time to obtain a good, detailed history and by doing a methodical and thorough neurologic examination, these cases can be both challenging and interesting.
How often have you said, "Look it up in Ettinger's?" Dr. Stephen J. Ettinger co-edited the renowned Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, now in its sixth edition. An internist and cardiologist, he practices at California Animal Hospital in Los Angeles.
Between 2002 and 2004, ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) staff members consulted on 158 cases of moth repellent ingestion. In most instances, the exposure was oral, but dermal and inhalation exposures were also reported. Naphthalene was the active ingredient in 83% of the cases, and paradichlorobenzene was the active ingredient in 17%.
Under aerobic conditions, the intermediate product of glycogenolysis, pyruvic acid, follows an aerobic glycolysis pathway and eventually participates in the Citric-acid cycle or "Krebs cycle" that provides substrates (16 H+) for the oxidative phosphorylation. This oxidative phosphorylation provides a large amount of energy for the cells. Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvic acid follows a different route, the anaerobic glycolysis pathway, and the end-product of this complex cascade of reactions results in accumulation of lactate.
Treating these ears can be frustrating because of changing susceptibility profiles. The organism can become resistant to all available antibiotics or may become susceptible only to expensive or difficult-to-obtain antibiotics.
A founding member of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists, Dr. Short is a professor emeritus of anesthesiology and pain management at Cornell University. Throughout his veterinary career, he has strived to boost the recognition and control of pain in animals.