Fort Collins, Colo. -- The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) could not pinpoint the cause of a July fire that ripped through Colorado State University's (CSU) Equine Reproduction Laboratory office building, according to a recent report.
While vaginal cytology is an inexpensive, accurate way to diagnose the stage of the estrous cycle of a bitch, use of cytology alone will not allow the clinician to determine the truly important events in the cycle: the LH surge, ovulation, and the fertile period.
he simplest, least invasive, most economical diagnostic tool for determining the stage of the estrous cycle in a bitch, and surely the most widely utilized, is the examination of the bitch’s vaginal cytology.
Each year in the United States millions of homeless or unwanted dogs and cats are euthanized in animal shelters and humane societies. While precise numbers are difficult to obtain the Humane Society of the United States estimates that between 3 and 4 million dogs and cats are euthanized each year (HSUS 2006).
Reproductive problems of stallions occur frequently and may be related to physiologic, pathologic, and management processes. Relatively few colts are kept as stallions in the equine industry, and veterinarians may not have a great deal of exposure or experience with stallions.
Assisted reproductive technologies in small animals are not a 21st century invention; the first artificial insemination in dogs was performed in 1780 and the first description of an oocyte at the microscopic level was that of a canine oocyte, in 1827.
Many veterinarians graduate with no formal education in feline reproduction; cats were not identified as one of the "major" species in which theriogenology training was required at most schools surveyed. In a study in which practitioners across the United States were asked to rank which procedures in theriogenology they performed most commonly by species, dystocia management and treatment of reproductive tract disease were those listed most commonly for the cat.
The estrous cycle of the bitch consists of proestrus, estrus, diestrus, and anestrus. Proestrus is the first stage of heat, when the bitch first shows swelling of the vulva and exudation of serosanguinous vulvar discharge. Male dogs are interested but she does not allow mounting. Estrus, or standing heat, is characterized by softening of the vulva, a change from serosanguinous to a more tan-colored discharge, and flagging and standing by the bitch.
Cats (Felis catus) live outdoors on every continent except Antarctica and on islands of every size, either as natural or introduced species. Because cats are loosely domesticated, with freedom to roam considered acceptable by cat owners in many countries, it is difficult to classify cat populations as owned, stray, or feral.