Cystotomy is commonly performed in small-animal practice to remove cystic calculi that cannot be treated medically or with other nonsurgical extraction techniques (urohydropropulsion, catheter or basket removal). Unfortunately, if numerous smaller calculi are present in the bladder and urethra, particularly in male dogs, the risk of leaving calculi after cystotomy can be as high as 15% to 20%.
Digital radiography is gaining popularity in veterinary medicine because it offers several advantages over traditional film-based radiography, including improved imaging latitude, fewer retakes, access to teleradiology, and improved patient care through better image quality.
Digital radiography is a hot topic in veterinary medicine. Some would even say it is the latest craze. Considering that digital radiography and a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) will initially cost a practice between $50,000 and $150,000, switching from film to digital images is not a decision to be taken lightly.
Since few practices can do horizontal beam radiography with standard machines in the operating room, dental radiographic units mounted on a mobile stand can be used to intraoperatively radiograph calculi at the base of the os penis.
In this retrospective study from a university teaching hospital, five dogs with progressive, unilateral forelimb lameness and neurologic deficits having undergone ultrasonographic evaluation of the brachial plexus region were described.