Sonographic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is a routine part of the diagnostic investigation of gastrointestinal disorders. Improved visualization of the GI tract has been achieved due to technologic advances in both ultrasound machines and with the development of higher frequency transducers.
Radiology is like standing on the outside of the building; it allows you to see the size, shape and contour of the building; ultrasound allows you to look into each room in the building i.e. the liver room, the gallbladder room, the pancreas room, the kidney room, the urinary bladder room etc.
Osteochondritis dissecans (osteochondrosis dissecans, OC, OCD) is the most common of the developmental orthopedic diseases and is caused by a sub-condral ossification defect that results in increased thickness of soft articular cartilage, thus decreased nutrient and oxygen availability (from articular fluid) and secondary mechanical failure resulting in a concave bony defect and cartilage flap formation.
Anatomy (from the?Greek??v???????anatomia, from??v????v????ana: separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open) is a branch of?biology?and?medicine?that is the consideration of the?structure of living things. It is a general term that includeshuman anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and?plant anatomy?(phytotomy).
The survey ultrasound study is primarily used to assess soft tissue composition and in some cases function (echocardiogram) as well as guide you in biopsying "soft tissue" lesions. It has limited value in assessing bone-primarily restricted to the bone surface and it has no value in evaluating gas other than letting you know gas is present.
Before pathology can be discussed, the normal appearance of the liver, biliary system, and pancreas will be reviewed. Determination of liver size via US is not accurate and is best done on radiographs. Ultrasound is best performed with the animal in dorsal recumbency (on their back) and the area must be clipped free of hair.
While standard radiographic and ultrasound imaging techniques are common diagnostic tools in exotic animal medicine, the use of more advanced imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) currently appear to be underutilized for exotic patients.
Initially it is important to be able to identify radiographic signs of cardiac chamber enlargement. The left atrium on the lateral view when enlarged causes a change in shape of the dorsocadual aspect of the cardiac silhouette.