Indications for an esophagram include regurgitation, gagging or retching, dysphagia, cough associated with eating, as well as the presence of a mediastinal, cervical, or thoracic mass. The pertinent anatomy to remember is that in the cat the caudal 1/3 of the esophagus is smooth muscle.
Interventional radiology involves the use of imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy or ultrasonography to gain access to different structures in order to deliver materials for therapeutic purposes. The use of interventional techniques in veterinary patients offers a number of advantages compared to more traditional therapies.
If the radiographic image is of diagnostic quality, you are able to perceive objects/structures because of their atomic composition and the state of the matter in those objects/structures.The terms used to compare objects of different darkness or whiteness are radiolucent (dark, less opaque) and radiopaque (white, more opaque).
Initially we have to review all the normal structures on a thoracic radiograph before we can begin to discuss pathology. So a review....There are three main normal structures in the lungs: the interstitium, airways, and vessels. The interstitium is the supporting structure of the lungs.
Let's begin with the upper urinary tract – the kidneys and ureters. Knowing normal anatomy is of course initially necessary to perform an adequate ultrasound examination. You should always scan in two planes (sagittal and transverse). The right kidney is harder to visualize as it is located at the level of T13 and is located in the caudate fossa of the liver.
Ultrasound examinations are becoming routine standard of care in veterinary medicine. Due to the non-invasive nature of the modality, the general affordability of the hardware and the growing amount of continuing education to train general practitioners and veterinary technicians on the technical aspects of scanning, ultrasound is becoming the modality of choice, especially when examining the abdomen.