Indications for an esophagram include regurgitation, gagging or retching, dysphagia, cough associated with eating, as well as the presence of a mediastinal, cervical, or thoracic mass. The pertinent anatomy to remember is that in the cat the caudal 1/3 of the esophagus is smooth muscle.
Radiology is like standing on the outside of the building; it allows you to see the size, shape and contour of the building; ultrasound allows you to look into each room in the building i.e. the liver room, the gallbladder room, the pancreas room, the kidney room, the urinary bladder room etc.
Initially we have to review all the normal structures on a thoracic radiograph before we can begin to discuss pathology. So a review....There are three main normal structures in the lungs: the interstitium, airways, and vessels. The interstitium is the supporting structure of the lungs.
The survey ultrasound study is primarily used to assess soft tissue composition and in some cases function (echocardiogram) as well as guide you in biopsying "soft tissue" lesions. It has limited value in assessing bone-primarily restricted to the bone surface and it has no value in evaluating gas other than letting you know gas is present.
Radiology is like standing on the outside of the building; it allows you to see the size, shape and contour of the building; ultrasound allows you to look into each room in the building i.e. the liver room, the gallbladder room, the pancreas room, the kidney room, the urinary bladder room etc.Indications for radiographic examination
If the radiographic image is of diagnostic quality, you are able to perceive objects/structures because of their atomic composition and the state of the matter in those objects/structures.The terms used to compare objects of different darkness or whiteness are radiolucent (dark, less opaque) and radiopaque (white, more opaque).
Anatomy (from the?Greek??v???????anatomia, from??v????v????ana: separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open) is a branch of?biology?and?medicine?that is the consideration of the?structure of living things. It is a general term that includeshuman anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and?plant anatomy?(phytotomy).
Sonographic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is a routine part of the diagnostic investigation of gastrointestinal disorders. Improved visualization of the GI tract has been achieved due to technologic advances in both ultrasound machines and with the development of higher frequency transducers.
Initially it is important to be able to identify radiographic signs of cardiac chamber enlargement. The left atrium on the lateral view when enlarged causes a change in shape of the dorsocadual aspect of the cardiac silhouette.
Interventional radiology involves the use of imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy or ultrasonography to gain access to different structures in order to deliver materials for therapeutic purposes. The use of interventional techniques in veterinary patients offers a number of advantages compared to more traditional therapies.
Osteochondritis dissecans (osteochondrosis dissecans, OC, OCD) is the most common of the developmental orthopedic diseases and is caused by a sub-condral ossification defect that results in increased thickness of soft articular cartilage, thus decreased nutrient and oxygen availability (from articular fluid) and secondary mechanical failure resulting in a concave bony defect and cartilage flap formation.