Organophosphates (OPs) competitively inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by binding to its esteric site. Without AChE, acetylcholine accumulates and causes excessive synaptic neurotransmitter activity.
Every second counts when treating poisoned patients. For most substances, there's only a narrow time frame in which decontamination can be effectively and safely performed. Here are 8 questions to consider before inducing vomiting on the poisoned pet.
Permethrin, a synthetic type I pyrethroid, is found in many flea and tick shampoos, dips, foggers, spot-ons, and sprays as well as many household and yard insecticide formulations. While permethrins have a relatively wide margin of safety in dogs, cats appear to be more sensitive to the toxicity of concentrated permethrins.
First, a word of caution.... Assess each individual situation carefully and remember that anything can be dangerous in the right quantity (even water). Also, consider health status of patient. Once you take all these into account, there are many exposures that you may be able to talk clients through managing at home.
Methylxanthines are alkaloids that occur naturally in plants and are found in tea, coffee beans, cola beans, and cocoa beans. The methylxanthines in chocolate include caffeine and theobromine. Some methylxanthines are used therapeutically as bronchodilators including theophylline and aminophylline.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is the salicylate ester of acetic acid and is a weak acid derived from phenol. Aspirin reduces pain and inflammation by reducing prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase. At very high doses, aspirin and other salicylates uncouple oxidative phosphorylation leading to decreased ATP production. Salicylates also affect platelet aggregation.
Methanol (also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol) is found most commonly in "antifreeze" windshield washer fluid and varies in concentration from 20-100% (with 20-30% being the most common form.) Methanol's metabolite, formaldehyde, is rapidly oxidized by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase to formic acid, which can cause metabolic acidosis if significant quantities of methanol are ingested.
Citalopram is a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI). The therapeutic dose in dogs is 1 mg/kg PO q 24 h. Per APCC Database: 1 mg/kg depression and 29 mg/kg tremors, seizures. Citalopram overdose results in serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is a complex group of clinical signs resulting from the over stimulation of serotonin receptors and can include the following: