"Preload" parameters are those which address whether or not the heart is receiving a venous return sufficient to expect reasonable forward blood flow.
Pain is defined as an aversive sensory and emotional experience.
Potassium concentration is very commonly abnormal in critically ill patients.
Animals are sometimes presented with such severe abnormalities in important blood constituents that a generic fluid plan does not adequately address the problem.
All commercially available sedatives and anesthetics are safe when properly administered to normal animals.
Sodium concentration is an expression of the relative numbers of sodium molecules to water molecules, irrespective of the total numbers.
There are three major body fluid compartments in the body: intravascular, interstitial, and intracellular.
Plasma might be administered for its albumin or coagulation factor content.
Once life-threatening hypovolemia and electrolyte problems have been corrected or if they were not judged to be present in the first place, the remaining fluid and electrolyte abnormalities can be dealt with.
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