Icterus is a term used to describe the clinical appearance of hyperbilirubinemia. While reference values may vary, in most instances a serum bilrubin > 1 mg/dl is considered abnormal but clinically detectable icterus usually does not occur until the bilirubin is > 3 mg/dl.
Nasal discharge is seen most commonly with diseases of the nasal passages, sinuses and nasopharynx. Occasionally disease involving the lower airways (trachea, bronchi, etc) can result in nasal discharge.
Endocrine emergencies are clinical presentations in which immediate recognition and treatment of the endocrine disorder is required to decrease patient morbidity and prevent mortality. Endocrine disorders that require this immediate recognition and treatment are adrenal insufficiency, pheochromocytoma, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar diabetes mellitus, insulinoma, hypoparathyroidism, and myxedema coma in severe hypothyroidism.
Dogs and cats frequently present for signs related to the urinary tract. These signs may be due to inappropriate urination (house soiling or urinary incontinence) or may relate to the act of voiding itself.
Calcium is involved in many cellular and extracellular processes that include neuromuscular transmission, muscle contraction/tone, hormone secretion, bone homeostasis, coagulation, membrane transport systems, and other cell regulatory pathways. Calcium is measured as ionized (active form, roughly 50%) or total (ionized + albumin bound + anion bound).