These proceedings present data related to the question of how long to wait after administering a single injection antimicrobial before applying success/failure criteria. More accurately, we will evaluate success/failure and mortality data based on administering a uniform regimen and then waiting different periods before applying success/failure criteria, and the animal subsequently being eligible for further therapy.
In this session we will take an evidence-based medicine approach to ancillary therapy of bovine respiratory disease. The literature reviewed here is not presented as being all-inclusive, but rather as a summary of many commonly cited articles on these subjects. The citations are primarily peer reviewed, but some are from freedom of information (FOI) summaries and a few are proceedings papers or abstracts.
Antimicrobial efficacy in cattle can be evaluated through clinical studies including a negative control group. To be included here, the study must have specified that the subjects were randomized, the evaluators were masked to treatment, and that statistical analysis was applied. Much of the data were compiled from Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information (FOI) summaries for veterinary drug approvals.
"Susceptible" and "Resistant" are thrown around in the fields of microbiology, medicine, public health, and epidemiology with great frequency. Unfortunately, these classifications are often used in a manner inconsistent with their correct application.
The capacity to experience pain is considered to have a protective role by eliciting behavioral responses aimed at reducing further tissue damage and enhance wound healing. However, persistent pain syndromes offer no biological advantage and are associated with suffering and distress.
This presentation attempts to summarize some of the major concerns in resistance development along with key articles explaining relevance, epidemiology, and prevalence. It is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the literature and the interested practitioner should use the cited literature herein as a basis for continued, extended reading.