Foals are often afflicted with limb deformities, and they are classified as flexural or angular deformities. Occasionally, rotational deformities are also present. Many of the congenital angular limb deformities correct with no treatment or with only conservative treatment.
The palmar digital nerves are blocked by injecting up to 2 ml of anesthetic over the nerves, along the edge of the DDFT. Much discussion has taken place regarding the proximal to distal level that the injection should occur. The PDN can be blocked anywhere from the proximal margin of the collateral cartilage to the mid pastern region.
Equine practitioners frequently deal with septic wounds, arthritis, osteomyelitis and tenosynovitis. The primary mechanisms of treatment should always include physical debridement and lavage. Most treatment regiment include systemic antimicrobials and antiinflammatories. A limiting factor in some cases is the ability to obtain effective concentrations of antimicrobials to the sites of infection or contamination.
Early studies of shock waves (SWs) for ureteral stones resulted in radiographically evident remodeling of the pelvis.1 These findings sparked the initial studies investigating the use of SWs in orthopedic applications.
There has been much published on gastric ulceration in horses in the last 10 years. In this hour we will discuss the diagnostics, risk factors and treatment of gastric ulcers. We will concentrate on current, clinically applicable information.
The major concern of any fracture repair is to maintain adequate stability for fracture healing to occur. The stability provided by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is difficult to achieve with other methods of fracture repair. However, ORIF invades the fracture site, can lead to further disruption of vasculature and soft tissue and may provide a mechanism for infection to develop or persist.