Respiratory disease continues to present challenges in the dairy industry in the 21st century. Traditionally, veterinary curricula have emphasized an etiologic approach to the subject and veterinary practitioners are very familiar with the well documented and heavily researched infectious causes such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma spp.
Salmonellosis has always been present within the US dairy and beef industries but has become an increasing problem on some dairies due to a variety of factors likely related to increasing herd size, production levels, and increased use of confinement housing.
Congenital, infectious, neoplastic, nutritional and toxic causes of cardiac disease are occasionally encountered in primary and referral bovine practice. The presentation accompanying these proceedings will review the most commonly encountered conditions with an emphasis on dairy cattle in the Northern United States.
Following the initial report of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) in 1992 by Ruggles et al, the disease has subsequently been reported in dairy cows in the US, dairy and beef cows in Canada, dairy cows in Europe and dairy cows in the Middle East.