Over the years, the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease in dogs and cats have improved through the development of new
technology (echocardiography), the introduction of new drugs (ACE inhibitors, calcium sensitizers), and a growing understanding
of the cause and pathophysiology of disease. Yet despite these advances, the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac
disease remain high.
In human medicine, the most effective medications are those that alter the underlying pathophysiology of disease, usually
by correcting the abnormal activity of neurohormonal mechanisms such as the renin-angiotensin or sympathetic nervous system.
However, even these medications cannot replace cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) that are irretrievably lost to the underlying
disease. Unlike other types of cells, cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated and are incapable of returning to the cell
cycle. Progressive loss of viable cardiomyocytes, a feature of heart disease in both people and animals, leads to further
stress on the remaining tissue, sustained activation of detrimental neurohormonal activity, and progressive loss of global
USING CARDIAC CELLULAR TRANSPLANTATION TO TREAT CARDIAC DISEASE
Cardiac cellular transplantation (CCT), a novel heart disease treatment, aims to replace lost cardiomyocytes with progenitor
cells capable of growing into new cardiac-like tissue. Many organ systems can regenerate new tissue; the liver, skin, bone
marrow, and skeletal muscle all contain populations of precursor cells capable of rebuilding damaged tissue. For example,
skeletal muscle contains myoblast (satellite) cells that reside in the periphery of the muscle fiber. These myoblasts are
recruited to areas of muscle injury to engraft and differentiate into new functional skeletal muscle. Other examples of these
adult stem cells include bone marrow and endothelial progenitor cells. Using stem cells derived from adult tissue instead
of those from embryonic tissue has several advantages, the most important being the avoidance of the ethical dilemma surrounding
embryonic stem cell use. Also, using adult stem cells from a patient's own (autologous) tissue removes the concern over transplant
Atherosclerosis-related myocardial infarctions
CCT has been successfully performed in people with atherosclerosis-related myocardial infarctions. During this procedure,
aliquots of stem cells are directly injected into the heart muscle with a syringe and needle at the time of coronary artery
bypass grafting. The results from early trials in people as well as from a growing amount of animal data suggest that, when
implanted, a variety of adult stem cells are able to survive and differentiate into cardiac-like muscle tissue, rebuilding
the heart one cell at a time.
Canine dilated cardiomyopathy
Unlike ischemic disease in people, which is primarily a regional phenomenon, canine dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of
global ventricular proportion, and local injections of cells during surgery would be a relatively inefficient way to distribute
stem cells throughout the affected left ventricle. In 2000, researchers reported a technique in which stem cells were injected
into the coronary circulation where they were entrapped within the capillary beds and subsequently disseminated into the surrounding
tissue.1 The advantage of this technique is a more uniform and global distribution of cells.
Figure 1 : Phase contrast microscopy of canine myoblasts isolated through cell culture displaying stellate-shaped myoblasts.
Our research at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine has demonstrated the feasibility of autologous CCT
in dogs by using skeletal muscle myoblasts delivered through a coronary artery injection. We are investigating this new technology
with the future hope of treating dogs that have dilated cardiomyopathy. With our procedure, skeletal muscle biopsy samples
are obtained from the quadriceps muscle and are used to harvest myoblasts through a series of filtration and incubation steps.
Over several weeks, the myoblasts are expanded in cell culture (Figure 1) and then labeled with a fluorescent dye so they are identifiable after transplant (Figure 2). The cells are then injected back into the donor dog by using a fluoroscopically guided catheter placed into the left coronary
Figure 2 : A fluorescent microscopic image of labeled myoblasts within the left ventricular tissue of a dog that received
one million myoblasts through coronary artery injection. The transplanted cells are identified by their blue color against
the nonfluorescent background of native myocardial cells.
This catheter-based injection technique only requires access to the femoral artery and does not require a thoracotomy. We
have injected up to five million myoblasts into the hearts of normal dogs and have preliminarily established the feasibility
and safety of this technique. We have also examined the efficacy of myoblast entrapment within the myocardial capillary bed
and documented the survival of the transplanted cells up to seven days after the transplant.