Toxicology Brief: The 10 most common toxicoses in dogs - Veterinary Medicine
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Toxicology Brief: The 10 most common toxicoses in dogs


VETERINARY MEDICINE


Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are in numerous products, including paints, varnishes, engine cleaners, furniture polish, lighter fluid, lamp oils, paint removers, and fuel oil (e.g. acetone, xylene, kerosene, gasoline, naphtha, mineral oil). GI signs such as vomiting and diarrhea are common in dogs ingesting hydrocarbons. Mild to moderate eye irritation and reversible ocular injury may occur after contact with most hydrocarbons.16 Acute but prolonged skin exposure to some hydrocarbons can result in dermal burns and, occasionally, systemic effects. Low-viscosity, highly volatile hydrocarbons (e.g. those found in kerosene, gasoline, liquid furniture polish) are aspiration hazards. Pulmonary damage, transient CNS depression or excitement, hypoxia, inflammation, and, potentially, secondary infection (pneumonia) can occur.16 Hepatic and renal damage have been reported from a percentage of both experimental and field cases of hydrocarbon poisoning. Some hydrocarbons are also apparently capable of sensitizing the myocardium to endogenous catecholamines, resulting in arrhythmias and even complete cardiovascular collapse.16


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Because of the risk of aspiration, emesis is contraindicated in patients ingesting products containing hydrocarbons. Dilution can be recommended. To treat topical exposure, bathe the dog with a liquid dishwashing detergent. Flush the eyes copiously with saline in cases of ocular exposure. Closely monitor patients for aspiration pneumonia, particularly in vomiting dogs.16 Treatment is supportive and symptomatic .

"Toxicology Brief" was contributed by Irina Meadows, DVM, and Sharon Gwaltney-Brant, DVM, PhD, ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36, Urbana, IL 61802. The department editor is Petra A. Volmer, DVM, MS, DABVT, DABT, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

REFERENCES

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16. Raisbeck MF. Petroleum hydrocarbons. In: Peterson ME, Talcott PA, eds. Small animal toxicology. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co, 2001;666-676.


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