Key gastrointestinal surgeries: Incisional gastropexy - Veterinary Medicine
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Key gastrointestinal surgeries: Incisional gastropexy
This simple procedure is a good option for helping preventgastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs and has few postoperative complications.



Complications from incisional gastropexy are minimal as long as the abdominal and gastric wall incision location, length, and depth are appropriate.1,5,11,12,14 Direct apposition of gastric and body wall muscle is critical in forming a strong adhesion.14 The effects of gastropexy on motility may depend on the severity of the disease; normal dogs that undergo circumcostal gastropexy have normal gastric emptying (90% emptying at 5.5 hours), but dogs with GDV that undergo circumcostal gastropexy will have increased gastric emptying time (90% emptying at 13 hours) after surgery.21 Gastric motility may be temporarily decreased after surgery in dogs with GDV because of gastric muscle overstretching or damage and subsequent atony.8,16,21 Fortunately, this appears to be subclinical.8,16 Inappropriate placement of a gastropexy may also result in outflow obstruction if the angle between the pyloric antrum and duodenum is too acute.22

Kara Watson, BS
Karen M. Tobias, DVM, MS, DACVS
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-4544


1. Rasmusen L. Stomach. In: Slatter D, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co, 2003;610-614.

2. Ward MP, Patronek GJ, Glickman LT. Benefits of prophylactic gastropexy for dogs at risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus. Prev Vet Med 2003;60:319-329.

3. Monnet E. Gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2003;33:987-1005.

4. Rawlings CA, Mahaffey MB, Bement S, et al. Prospective evaluation of laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in dogs susceptible to gastric dilatation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1576-1581.

5. Waschak MJ, Payne JT, Pope ER, et al. Evaluation of percutaneous gastrostomy as a technique for permanent gastropexy. Vet Surg 1997;26:235-241.

6. Rawlings CA, Foutz TL, Mahaffey MB, et al. A rapid and strong laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871-875.

7. Degna MT, Formaggini L, Fondati A, et al. Using a modified gastropexy technique to prevent recurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. Vet Med 2001;96:39-50.

8. Wacker CA, Weber UT, Tanno F, et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adhesions induced by incisional gastropexy in 16 dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1998;39:379-384.

9. Pope ER, Jones BD. Clinical evaluation of a modified circumcostal gastropexy in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:952-955.

10. Wilson ER, Henderson RA, Montgomery RD, et al. A comparison of laparoscopic and belt-loop gastropexy in dogs. Vet Surg 1996;25:221-227.

11. Fossum TW. Surgery of the digestive system. In: Small animal surgery. 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2002;346-350.

12. Hardie RJ, Flanders JA, Schmidt P, et al. Biomechanical and histological evaluation of a laparoscopic stapled gastropexy technique in dogs. Vet Surg 1996;25:127-133.

13. Fox SM, Ellison GW, Miller GF, et al. Observations of the mechanical failure of three gastropexy techniques. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1985;21:729-734.

14. MacCoy DM, Sykes GP, Hoffer RE, et al. A gastropexy technique for permanent fixation of the pyloric antrum. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1982;18:763-768.


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