Animal hoarding: Its roots and recognition - Veterinary Medicine
Medicine Center
DVM Veterinary Medicine Featuring Information from:


Animal hoarding: Its roots and recognition
Because you are likely to encounter an animal hoarder, familiarize yourself with the signs of hoarding and build relationships now with the authorities you can turn to for support.



1. Arkow P. Child abuse, animal abuse, and the veterinarian. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994;204:1004-1007.

2. Rollin B. An ethicist's commentary on whether veterinarians should report cruelty. Can Vet J 1994;35:408-409.

3. Crook A. The CVMA animal abuse position—how we got here. Can Vet J 2000;41:631-635.

4. Worth D, Beck AM. Multiple ownership of animals in New York City. Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila 1981;3:280-300.

5. Patronek GJ. Hoarding of animals: an under-recognized public health problem in a difficult-to-study population. Public Health Rep 1999;114:81-87.

6. Frost RO, Krause MS, Steketee G. Hoarding and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Behav Modif 1996;20:116-132.

7. Damecour CL, Charron M. Hoarding: a symptom, not a syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:267-272.

8. Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium (HARC). Health implications of animal hoarding. Health Soc Work 2002;27:125-136.

9. Frost R, Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium (HARC). People who hoard animals. Psychiatric Times 2000;17:25-29. Available online at

10. Marquis J. The Kittles case and its aftermath. Animal Law 1996;2:197-201.

11. Berry C, Patronek GJ, Lockwood R. Animal hoarding: a study of 56 case outcomes. Animal Law 2005;11:167-194.

12. Greenberg D, Witztum E, Levy A. Hoarding as a psychiatric symptom. J Clin Psychiatry 1990;51:417-421.

13. Patronek GJ, Loar L, Nathanson JN, eds. Animal hoarding: structuring interdisciplinary responses to help people, animals, and communities at risk. A report of an expert workshop, April 3, 2004, Boston, Mass. Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium, 2006. Available at:

14. American Veterinary Medical Association. Companion animal care guidelines, 2003. Available at:

15. Patronek GJ. Issues and guidelines for veterinarians in recognizing, reporting, and assessing animal neglect and abuse. In: Recognizing and reporting animal abuse—a veterinarian's guide. Denver, Colo: American Humane Association, 1998

16. Miller L, Zawistowski S. Shelter medicine for veterinarians and staff. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell, 2004.

17. McMillan FD. Mental health and well-being in animals. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishers, 2005.


Click here