Toxicology Brief: Mushroom poisoning in dogs - Veterinary Medicine
  • SEARCH:
Medicine Center
DVM Veterinary Medicine Featuring Information from:

ADVERTISEMENT

Toxicology Brief: Mushroom poisoning in dogs


VETERINARY MEDICINE


GI irritants

Numerous mushroom genera are GI irritants (Table 1).9 For the most part, the toxic principles involved are unknown,9 although idiosyncratic and allergic mechanisms have been proposed. Typically, clinical signs of acute GI upset occur within two hours of ingestion and consist of malaise, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.9 The greatest risk associated with poisoning by these mushrooms is fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Most cases are mild and usually resolve without treatment within 24 hours. If required, supportive care would consist of subcutaneous or intravenous crystalloids. The administration of oral GI protectants could be considered once vomiting has ceased.

Orelline and orellanine

While Cortinarius species exist in North America, no poisoning has been recorded to date.9 European and Japanese species from this genus cause acute, irreversible tubulointerstitial nephritis and acute renal failure.9

PREVENTION

As with most poisonings, the best method of controlling mushroom poisonings is preventing exposure. This means that only those who are knowledgeable about mushroom identification should collect wild-growing mushrooms for consumption. Dogs should be prevented from consuming mushrooms or roaming when they are being exercised. As with most poisonings, prompt upper GI decontamination and supportive care are critical elements of treatment.

"Toxicology Brief" was contributed by Rhian B. Cope, BVSc, BSc (Hon 1), PhD, DABT, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, College of Agricultural Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331. The department editor is Petra Volmer, DVM, MS, DABVT, DABT, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

REFERENCES

1. Bernard MA. Mushroom poisoning in a dog. Can Vet J 1979;20:82-83.

2. Cole FM. A puppy death and Amanita phalloides. Aust Vet J 1993;70:271-272.

3. Kirwan AP. 'Magic mushroom' poisoning in a dog. Vet Rec 1990;126:149.

4. Naude TW, Berry WL. Suspected poisoning of puppies by the mushroom Amanita pantherina. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1997;68:154-158.

5. Ridgway RL. Mushroom (Amanita pantherina) poisoning. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978;172:681-682.

6. Tegzes JH, Puschner B. Amanita mushroom poisoning: efficacy of aggressive treatment of two dogs. Vet Hum Toxicol 2002;44:96-99.

7. Yam P, Helfer S, Watling R. Mushroom poisoning in a dog. Vet Rec 1993;133:24.

8. Spoerkem D. Mushroom exposure. In: Peterson ME, Talcott PA, eds. Small animal toxicology. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co, 2001;571-592.

9. Schonwald S, Mushrooms. In: Dart RC, ed. Medical toxicology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004;1719-1735.

10. Menser GP. Hallucinogenic and poisonous mushroom: field guide. 2nd ed. Berkeley, Calif: Ronin Publishing Inc, 1997;1-115.

11. Peterson M. Toxicologic decontamination. In: Peterson ME, Talcott PA, eds. Small animal toxicology. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co, 2001;85-98.

12. Enjalbert F, Rapior S, Nouguier-Soule J, et al. Treatment of amatoxin poisoning: 20-year retrospective analysis. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2002;40:715-757.


ADVERTISEMENT

Source: VETERINARY MEDICINE,
Click here