Dental Corner: Educate your clients about dental home care for their pets - Veterinary Medicine
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Dental Corner: Educate your clients about dental home care for their pets


VETERINARY MEDICINE


Offer appropriate chew treats

Chew treats such as rawhide can also help remove plaque and tartar from a dog's teeth.9-11 Rawhide hasn't been observed to cause digestive problems in the studies documenting its efficacy in plaque and tartar control. However, swallowing larger pieces of rawhide could cause gastrointestinal tract problems (e.g. esophageal foreign body). Advise owners to provide size-appropriate rawhides that cannot be swallowed as a whole; smaller pieces of rawhide should be discarded. Plaque and tartar reduction is enhanced in rawhide treats coated with calcium-sequestering substances such as sodium hexametaphosphate.12 Chew treats that have earned the VOHC seal of approval include Tartar Check Dog Biscuit: Small and Large Sizes (Del Monte Pet Products), Friskies Cheweez Beefhide Treats (Friskies Petcare), Hartz Dental Flavor Infused Chews (Hartz), Vetradent Dog Chews (Vetradent), and Feline Greenies (S&M NuTec).


Figure: 1. Some chew toys should be avoided. This slab fracture of the maxillary fourth premolar (carnassial tooth) was caused by chewing on a nylon bone.
Some chew toy products are not recommended because of their tendency to cause tooth fracture (Figure 1). Products such as nylon bones, cow hooves, and real bones are too hard and often are associated with slab fractures of the carnassial teeth in dogs. In addition, tennis balls cause abrasion (mechanical wearing of the tooth surface), so they are not recommended.

Apply OraVet

A more recent option for helping prevent periodontitis is applying OraVet (Merial), which is a biologically inert polymer that bonds to a tooth's surface to help reduce plaque and calculus formation. The product is easy to apply on anesthetized patients after dental prophylaxis and must also be applied weekly at home to maintain the protective barrier. OraVet must not be placed below the gum line (i.e. in the root surface in periodontal pockets) as it will prevent gingival connective tissue reattachment. Thus, it may be counterproductive if placed below the gum line after root planing and gingival curettage. A study has documented the effectiveness of OraVet in plaque and calculus prevention.13 OraVet should be thought of as another tool in the home care armamentarium that can be used in conjunction with tooth brushing and other home care techniques to promote periodontal health.

Use oral rinses and gels

Oral disinfectants such as chlorhexidine gluconate and chlorhexidine digluconate are another home care option for clients. After binding to gingival tissue, chlorhexidine kills bacteria that can cause periodontal disease and halitosis for up to 48 hours; bacterial resistance does not develop. Chlorhexidine can cause staining of the tooth surface that is reversible. Chlorhexidine is recommended in cases of chronic periodontitis; instruct owners to use chlorhexidine at least twice a week (or even daily) in addition to regular tooth brushing. Healthy gums are more important than reversibly stained teeth.

Maxi/Guard (Addison Biological Laboratory) is an oral gel that contains zinc ascorbate. Zinc is antibacterial, and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is necessary for collagen production. A study in cats showed a significant decrease in plaque, gingivitis, and anaerobic periodontal pathogens in the group treated with zinc ascorbate gel.14

Other oral rinse products containing chlorine dioxide work well for combating halitosis by neutralizing malodorous sulfur compounds. But keep in mind that simply covering up odor will not help any underlying pathology.

CONCLUSION

Many pet owners still do not know the importance of good oral health for their animal companions. It is our responsibility as veterinarians to educate clients about why it is important to maintain good oral health as well as how to do it. Many veterinarians will delegate this important task to a trained veterinary technician, and this is a perfect role for the veterinary dental technician to excel in. An ideal time to discuss home care techniques is at the time of discharge after a professional cleaning or, better yet, at a two-week recheck appointment when any extractions or other procedures have healed. Client education must be incorporated into the complete oral heath assessment and treatment plan.

Editors' Note: Dr. Carmichael has consulted for Merial, Hartz, Henry Schein, Webster, and Pfizer and has been sponsored by the above companies to provide education lectures.

The information and photographs for "Dental Corner" were provided by Daniel T. Carmichael, DVM, DAVDC, Veterinary Medical Center, 75 Sunrise Highway, West Islip, NY 11795.


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Source: VETERINARY MEDICINE,
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