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Canine T-cell lymphoma
The most common cause of hypercalcemia of malignancy in dogs
Dogs with hypercalcemia-associated lymphoma are considered to have clinical substage B disease and more likely have a T-cell
immunophenotype, both known negative prognostic variables for remission duration and survival time.1-7 These malignant cells have the potential to secrete PTHrP.8-14
Lymphoma (T-cell) is the most common underlying cause of severe hypercalcemia in dogs and should be considered a top differential
diagnosis for any dog presenting with this finding on a serum chemistry profile. Palpable lymph nodes (Figure A) or skin masses should be aspirated or biopsied for cytologic or histologic evaluation, respectively. A cranial mediastinal
mass can be identified on plain thoracic radiographs, which should be part of a hypercalcemia workup (Figures B-E).