The indications and technique for continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic recording in dogs - Veterinary Medicine
Medicine Center
DVM Veterinary Medicine Featuring Information from:


The indications and technique for continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic recording in dogs
Holter monitoring is a practical but underused diagnostic test available to all practitioners. It can be used to diagnose and assess treatment of arrhythmias, detect cardiomyopathy, identify the cause of syncope, and measure the atrial fibrillation ventricular response rate during treatment.


6. Salerno DM, Granrud G, Hodges M. Accuracy of commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers for quantification of total repetitive ventricular arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 1987;60(16):1299-1305.

7. Calvert CA, Hall G, Jacobs G, et al. Clinical and pathological findings in Doberman pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly or developed congestive heart failure: 54 cases (1984-1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210(4):505-511.

8. Calvert CA, Jacobs G, Pickus CW, et al. Results of ambulatory electrocardiography in overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers with echocardiographic abnormalities. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217(9):1328-1332.

9. Calvert CA, Jacobs G, Smith DD, et al. Association between results of ambulatory electrocardiography and development of cardiomyopathy during long-term follow-up of Doberman pinschers. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216(1):34-39.

10. Raeder EA, Hohnloser SH, Graboys TB, et al. Spontaneous variability and circadian distribution of ectopic activity in patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmia. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;12(3):656-661.

11. Calvert CA, Jacobs GJ, Pickus CW. Bradycardia-associated episodic weakness, syncope, and aborted sudden death in cardiomyopathic Doberman Pinschers. J Vet Intern Med 1996;10(2):88-93.

12. Calvert CA, Jacobs GJ, Pickus CW. Efficacy and toxicity of tocainide for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in Doberman pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 1996;10(4):235-240.

13. Moise NS, Meyers-Wallen V, Flahive WJ, et al. Inherited ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in German shepherd dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24(1):233-243.

14. Moise NS, Gilmour RF Jr, Riccio ML, et al. Diagnosis of inherited ventricular tachycardia in German shepherd dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210(3):403-407.

15. Meurs KM, Spier AW, Miller MW, et al. Familial ventricular arrhythmias in boxers. J Vet Intern Med 1999;13(5):437-439.

16. Basso C, Fox PR, Meurs KM, et al. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy causing sudden death in Boxer dogs: a new animal model of human disease (abst). Circulation 2002;106:199.

17. Vassalle M, Knob RE, Cummins M, et al. An analysis of fast idioventricular rhythm in the dog. Circ Res 1977; 41(2):218-226.

18. Calvert CA, Brown J. Influence of antiarrhythmia therapy on survival times of 19 clinically healthy Doberman pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy that experienced syncope, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death (1985-1998). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2004;40(1):24-28.

19. Kraus MS. Syncope in small breed dogs, in Proceedings. 21st Annu Am Coll Vet Intern Med Forum, 2003;137-138.

20. Thomason JD, Calvert CA, et al. Bradycardia associated syncope in seven boxers with ventricular tachyarrhythmias (2002-2005) (abst). J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:589.

21. Zimmerman JM, Bright E, Orton EC. Does in-hospital electrocardiogram reflect 24 hour heart rate parameters assessed by Holter monitor in Irish Wolfhound? (abst). J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:451.


Click here