West Nile virus infection: Essential facts for small-animal practitioners - Veterinary Medicine
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West Nile virus infection: Essential facts for small-animal practitioners
Your clients may be concerned about this virus in their pets. Are you prepared to answer their questions?


21. Lichtensteiger CA, Heinz-Taheny K, Osborne TS, et al. West Nile virus encephalitis and myocarditis in wolf and dog. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:1303-1306.

22. Kile JC, Panella NA, Chow CC, et al. Post-epidemic West Nile virus serosurvey of dogs and cats-Louisiana, 2002, in Proceedings. 139th Ann Meet Am Vet Med Assoc 2003.

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24. Porter MB, Long M, Gosche DG, et al. Immunoglobulin M-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum from horses exposed to West Nile virus by vaccination or natural infection. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:866-870.

25. Brault A, University of California, Davis, Calif: Personal communication, 2005.

26. Steele KE, Linn MJ, Schoepp RJ, et al. Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City, New York. Vet Pathol 2000;37:208-224.

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28. Swayne DE, Beck JR, Smith CS, et al. Fatal encephalitis and myocarditis in young domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) caused by West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7:751-753.

29. D'Agostino JJ, Isaza R. Clinical signs and results of specific diagnostic testing among captive birds housed at zoological institutions and infected with West Nile virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1640-1643, 1606.

30. Komar N, Lanciotti R, Bowen R, et al. Detection of West Nile virus in oral and cloacal swabs collected from bird carcasses. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:741-742.

31. Nusbaum KE, Wright JC, Johnston WB, et al. Absence of humoral response in flamingoes and red-tailed hawks to experimental vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine. Avian Dis 2003;47:750-752.


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