Goal # 2 Eliminate fleas on the premises
Many flea control products not only kill the fleas on a dog or cat but also provide prolonged residual activity, often killing
fleas for up to one month. In addition, some products provide prolonged activity against flea reproduction, either by killing
the eggs or preventing eggs from developing or being laid.
We must impress upon pet owners that it often takes several weeks to eliminate a flea infestation because all flea infestations
in dogs and cats originate from flea-infested premises, and it takes time to eradicate the immature stages living in the carpet
Review the flea cycle. Explain how the client's home or yard became infested. Briefly, fleas lay eggs from which larvae hatch. These larvae spin
cocoons in which they develop into pupae and later emerge as fleas. Let clients know that this cycle can take as little as
two or three weeks or as long as several months.
This information can be provided by the veterinarian, veterinary technician, or a highly trained staff member. Also consider
giving your clients educational materials that are often provided by product manufacturers.
Treat all dogs and cats for at least three months. Clients should know that the flea species that infests cats, Ctenocephalides felis, is the same species that infests dogs.2,3 If pet owners do not understand this basic aspect of flea biology, it can directly lead to flea control failures because
they may not see the need to treat every potential flea host in the home. Thus, in multiple-pet households, every dog and
cat in the home must be treated every month for at least three or four months to successfully eliminate all fleas in the environment.
In addition, you need to ascertain whether your clients have domestic rabbits, ferrets, or hedgehogs as pets since these species
can also be cat flea hosts.
Explain to owners that every dog and cat must be treated because once newly emerged fleas jump onto their pet, the fleas will
feed and mate, and female fleas will begin laying eggs within 24 hours.5 Since each female flea produces 40 to 50 eggs a day, within a few days hundreds and potentially thousands of eggs will be
deposited into the home or yard.5 If a single monthly dose is missed on a single pet, flea control is likely to fail because of the flea eggs dropping off
the untreated pet and continuing to develop and emerge in the environment. So we cannot treat only the scratching dog; we
must also treat the cat that may falsely appear to be flea-free.
Discuss other sources of new infestations. Inform pet owners that it is a myth that fleas infesting dogs and cats jump off to lay their eggs in cracks and crevices.
Flea eggs are laid in the animal's hair, and then the eggs roll and drop off into the carpet or outdoors.5 Thus, it is the flea-infested pet that distributes the eggs. In fact, think of a flea-infested pet as a living saltshaker.
These white flea eggs are deposited in every place the pet has access to, and the largest number of eggs are deposited in
places where pets spend most of their time. So areas in and around the home such as on the bed, next to the couch, on throw
rugs or pet bedding, and outdoors under porches and bushes and in crawlspaces often have more severe infestations.
Figure 1. The opossum is an important urban wildlife host for Ctenocephalides felis in North America.
Not only is a flea-infested pet a flea egg distributor, wildlife such as opossums (Figure 1), raccoons, foxes, coyotes, and mongooses (in tropical locations) (Figure 2), also commonly carry cat fleas, and, of course, so do stray dogs and cats.2,3 As these animals move through the neighborhood and yards, flea eggs drop off. This distribution is particularly problematic
in shaded, protected habitats where eggs and larvae are likely to survive and develop into adult fleas, such as under bushes,
shrubs, and porches and in crawlspaces.
Figure 2. The mongoose is an important wildlife host for Ctenocephalides felis in Hawaii.
Within a few days, these flea eggs will develop into larvae. In a week or two, these larvae spin a cocoon and develop into
pupae. In a few more weeks, the pupae develop into fleas that emerge from the cocoons and jump onto pets and, occasionally,
Dogs and cats rarely acquire fleas because fleas jumped off another dog or cat. The fleas that are biting pets and people
in the home came from pupae, which came from larvae, which came from eggs laid by female fleas about three to eight weeks
earlier. By the time the pet owner first notices fleas on a pet, immature stages have already been developing in the home
or outdoors for about one or two months. So tell pet owners that if they see fleas on their dogs or cats, then flea eggs,
larvae, pupae, and emerging fleas are in their carpet or outdoors (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Flea pupae in carpet.
Explain residual effects. Once a flea product has been correctly administered to all dogs and cats in a household, what will happen after the client
and pets go home? Pet owners must understand that in their homes or in shaded areas of their yards, immature stages of fleas
are developing and fleas will be emerging continuously to reinfest the pets, as stated above.
Flea products labeled for monthly administration should have sufficient residual activity to kill most emerging fleas that
jump onto a treated pet, and some products will even kill flea eggs. Explain to the client how these products will eliminate
the infestation by killing fleas before they can lay eggs, and, with some products, by killing any eggs the fleas might produce.4,6
Proper administration of flea products to all dogs and cats every month means no fleas reproducing and no eggs dropping into
the environment. Therefore, within two to five days, eggs that were previously deposited have developed into larvae, and within
one or two weeks, the larvae have developed into pupae, and two to six weeks later those pupae have become adult fleas. As
those fleas emerge and jump onto treated pets, the flea product kills them. Thus, within three to eight weeks, or occasionally
longer, all the fleas will be gone. If fleas cannot reproduce, they will go extinct in the home and yard. But if a pet owner
misses treating one pet, skips a single monthly treatment, or administers the product incorrectly, fleas will survive and
lay eggs and the infestation will continue.
Even if every flea-infested pet in a house is treated correctly, the premises in the home or shaded, protected areas in the
yard will still be infested for several weeks with immature flea life stages and emerging fleas. These fleas continue to develop
and jump onto treated pets. Existing flea products do not repel fleas effectively and do not kill fleas instantly. It often
takes several hours, maybe even a day or two, after these fleas have jumped onto treated pets for the fleas to be killed by
the residual insecticide.7 So clients should expect to see some fleas on their pets for at least three to eight weeks and, occasionally, even longer.
The period following treatment of pets until the infestation is completely eliminated is called the development window.4
Do I need to treat the premises? Several new insecticides and insect growth regulators have been shown to be effective in eliminating flea infestations under
the most difficult climatic conditions. Field studies conducted between 1996 and 2001 in Tampa, Fla., demonstrated that fipronil,
imidacloprid, lufenuron (plus pyrethrin spray or nitenpyram tablets), and selamectin were 95% to 100% effective in eliminating
established flea populations without treating the premises.8-11 For example, during one of these field studies in Tampa, Fla., a single application of imidacloprid was 95.3% and 97.4%
effective in reducing flea populations on pets at seven and 28 days, respectively.9 In that same study, a single application of fipronil was 97.5% and 97% effective in reducing flea populations on pets at
the same time points. Even though fleas continued to emerge, the products dramatically reduced flea numbers on pets. After
three monthly applications of either imidacloprid or fipronil, flea burdens on pets were reduced by 99.5% and 96.5%, respectively.9 Such studies indicate that while the products were highly effective, fleas were still present in low numbers on many treated
pets for several weeks after product applications.