Appropriate gear (e.g. wetsuits, nonslip shoes) is a good investment to keep the therapist safe and warm. A blow dryer for patients is essential
in cooler climates, but towels may suffice in warmer areas. Toys and harnesses for patients are also helpful.
Other considerations when purchasing an underwater treadmill include adequate space for the pool and filtration system, a
water source to fill the pool, and drainage availability when the pool needs to be partially or fully drained. If a basement
is not available to store the filtration system, in some areas of the country the holding tank can be placed outside the building
with piping coming in to diminish the spatial requirements. Water-filled pools are also quite heavy, so flooring strength
is important as well.
Each unit has unique maintenance requirements, but all require some mechanical maintenance and sanitation. Underwater treadmills
can be used with salt water or fresh water and can be sanitized with chlorine (may make dogs vomit or have diarrhea if they
ingest a substantial amount), bromine, or copper. Ozone can be added to aid in disinfection and lower the amount of primary
sanitizer needed to maintain a safe environment. Sand filters or cartridge filters can be used, but they need to be large
since a considerable amount of oil and particulate are expelled from canine coats. A local pool store has the ability to test
your water for particulate as well as chemicals. If you let them know how many gallons are in your tank, they have a computer
system to tell you what you need to add. It is usually a free service.
In our experience, underwater treadmill therapy can be beneficial not only in patients with injuries but also in patients
with osteoarthritis and obesity. Additionally, it can be used for conditioning healthy canine athletes. This wide scope of
use can make underwater treadmill therapy a great addition to many practices.
Christine Jurek, DVM
Laurie McCauley, DVM
TOPS Veterinary Rehabilitation
1440 E. Belvidere Road
Grayslake, IL 60030
1. Levine D, Rittenberry L, Millis DL. Aquatic therapy. In: Millis D, Levine D, Taylor RA, eds. Canine rehabilitation and physical therapy. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders, 2004;264-276.
2. Ruoti RG, Morris DM, Cole AJ. Aquatic rehabilitation. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1997:71-79.
3. Jackson A, Millis D, Stevens M, et al. Joint kinematics during underwater treadmill activity, in Proceedings. 2nd Int Symp Rehabil Phys Ther Vet Med 2002;191.
4. Marsolais GS, McLean S, Derrick T, et al. Kinematic analysis of the hind limb during swimming and walking in healthy dogs
and dogs with surgically corrected cranial cruciate ligament rupture. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222(6):739-743.
5. Zink MC. Peak performance: coaching the canine athlete. 2nd ed. Lutherville, Md: Canine Sports Productions, 1997.
6. Tragauer V, Levine D, Millis DL. Percentage of normal weight bearing during partial immersion at various depths in dogs,
in Proceedings. 2nd Int Symp Rehabil Phys Ther Vet Med 2002;189-190.
7. Dunning D, McCauley L, Knap K, et al . Effects of water temperature on heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature and
perceived exertional score in dogs exercising in an underwater treadmill, in Proceedings. 3rd Int Symp Rehabil Phys Ther Vet Med 2004;217.