Other concurrent diseases found in dogs with EPI include skin disease (29%), musculoskeletal disease (16%), gastrointestinal
diseases unrelated to EPI (13%), neuromuscular disease (9%), urogenital disease (9%), cardiopulmonary disease (7%), and diabetes
mellitus (2%).3 No causal relationships have been established between EPI and any of these conditions.
Jessica A. Morgan, DVM
Lisa E. Moore, DVM, DACVIM
Affiliated Veterinary Specialists
9905 South U.S. Highway 17/92
Maitland, FL 32751
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EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 6th ed. St Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders, 2005;1492–1495.
2. Wiberg ME, Nurmi AK, Westermarck E. Serum trypsinlike immunoreactivity measurement for the diagnosis of subclinical exocrine
pancreatic insufficiency. J Vet Intern Med 1999;13(5):426-432.
3. Batchelor DJ, Noble PJ, Taylor RH, et al. Prognostic factors in canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: prolonged survival
is likely if clinical remission is achieved. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21(1):54-60.
4. Williams DA, Batt RM, McLean L. Bacterial overgrowth in the duodenum of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987;191(2):201-206.
5. Hall EJ, German AJ. Diseases of the small intestine. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 6th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders, 2005:1332-1378.
6. Simpson KW, Morton DB, Batt RM. Effect of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency on cobalamin absorption in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1989;50(8):1233-1236.
7. Westermarck E, Rimaila-Parnanen E. Mesenteric torsion in dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: 21 cases (1978-1987).
J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;195(10):1404-1406.