How to manage feline chronic diarrhea, Part II: Treatment - Veterinary Medicine
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How to manage feline chronic diarrhea, Part II: Treatment
Targeted drug therapy, dietary changes, prebiotics, and probiotics are some of the tools that can help you get cats with persistent diarrhea back to normal GI function.


VETERINARY MEDICINE


IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUG THERAPY

Immunosuppressive drugs can be used effectively in cats with chronic diarrhea due to IBD, especially when dietary therapy has not improved or completely resolved clinical signs. Immunosuppressive drug therapy is also indicated in the treatment of intestinal lymphoma along with adjunctive therapy.

Prednisolone

IBD, the persistent inflammation of the GI tract without any identifiable pathogen or trigger, is one of the most common causes of chronic diarrhea in cats. Corticosteroids remain the cornerstone of treatment in cats with histologic evidence of otherwise unexplained intestinal inflammation (usually lymphoplasmacytic or eosinophilic). Prednisolone is preferred to prednisone because of increased bioavailability in cats.


Table 3
The starting dose for mild to moderate cases is 1 to 2 mg/kg/day; in more severe cases, this dose may be increased to 4 mg/kg/day (Table 3). It is generally preferable to divide the daily dose into two equal portions. Once the clinical signs are controlled, the dosage can be tapered by 25% every three to four weeks.17 Cats with mild disease can often be controlled with a modest dose (0.5 mg/kg) given every other day. If the corticosteroid dose is reduced too rapidly, clinical signs may recur. The goal is to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dose. Some cats may eventually no longer need the prednisolone, but others may require long-term therapy.

Budesonide

If prednisolone is poorly tolerated, budesonide can be used as an alternative. This locally acting corticosteroid undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver, so systemic exposure is theoretically minimized. Budesonide has not been thoroughly evaluated in cats, but it produces fewer unwanted side effects in dogs when compared with prednisone.18 However, long-term use is still associated with suppression of the pituitary-adrenal axis, indicating some generalized effects. The recommended dose is 1 mg/cat orally every 24 hours (Table 3). Budesonide is expensive and must be compounded before it can be used in cats.

Chlorambucil

In some patients with refractory IBD or intestinal small cell lymphoma, chlorambucil should be considered.19 This alkylating, antineoplastic, and immunosuppressive agent may be used in conjunction with prednisolone in these cases. Various dose schedules have been described; we usually recommend 2 mg/cat orally every 48 hours (Table 3). It may cause vomiting or a decrease in appetite in some individuals, and the dose or frequency of administration may need to be modified if these adverse effects occur. The most serious side effect of chlorambucil is myelosuppression, so it is important to perform a complete blood count every month or two.


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Source: VETERINARY MEDICINE,
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