A BETTER APPROACH
Instead of focusing on offense and defense, a strategy that teaches communication skills may be sufficient for a successful
outcome in dogs with fear- or anxiety-related aggression. Owners can learn to communicate their intentions and their expectations
to their dogs. For example, a dog might hunch over its rawhide bone as its owner enters the room, probably expecting that
the treasure is about to be confiscated. A simple "good boy, relax" can be used to communicate that the bone is of no interest
to the owner.
To some degree, dogs can also be taught to communicate in ways that are clear to humans. Consider the dog that has been taught
to follow a command. The manner in which the dog responds can reveal quite a bit about its mood. A dog that immediately responds
to the command "lie down," that exhibits relaxed eye contact and gentle forward ears, and that does not attempt to spring
up or pull away is communicating a willingness to continue the interaction. However, a dog that plops down upon hearing "lie
down" but then quickly leaps up or remains down but stares stiffly with its ears back is communicating discomfort. Of course,
it may not be safe to continue the interaction with this uneasy dog, particularly if there has been a history of aggressive
behavior. Canine postures can be quite subtle, but educating dog owners to accurately identify and understand the implications
of their dogs' postural changes is an integral part of a successful treatment plan.
In dogs that exhibit abnormally high levels of fear, using confrontational treatment strategies carries a great risk of increasing
fear and aggressive behavior, making it difficult to ensure safety. But if the underlying fear and anxiety can be reduced
and if triggers can be predicted and managed, then the outcome can be favorable. Behavior modification may include relaxation
exercises combined with desensitization and counter-conditioning to known triggers of aggression. Some triggers may need to
be purposely and carefully avoided to help prevent confrontations, particularly during the early treatment phase. Such avoidance
can be accomplished by the judicious use of gates, crates, or leashes.
It is generally helpful to increase a dog's vocabulary. By training a dog to respond to many cues there will be increased
communication and therefore predictability in the relationship.
Finally but perhaps most important, it is essential to abandon the use of punishment in the treatment of dogs exhibiting aggression
toward their owners. Even if owner safety and dog welfare were not considered (which they should be!), there is the simple
fact that the delivery of punishment must be precise in both timing and intensity. Incorrectly applied, punishment routinely
increases fear and decreases predictability—the very conditions that created the aggression in the first place.
WHAT IF IT REALLY IS DOMINANCE
Of course, some dogs do calmly and confidently guard resources. They may lean forward, even giving a bit of a snarl or growl
when told to obey. If aggressive postures yield the desired results, then aggressive behavior is likely to escalate. In these
cases, a diagnosis of dominant behavior or dominance-related aggression may apply. But this behavior can be addressed safely,
without the use of fear-based tactics or physical force. Owners can be educated to reward desired behaviors and discontinue
rewarding unsafe or unwanted behaviors. Dogs can learn that calmly offering appropriate postures, rather than assertive or
aggressive postures, earns them all the resources they need. Reward-based training can be used to teach dogs to follow commands
with alacrity, eliminating the need for owners to shout instructions or pull their dogs physically.
We still have a lot to learn. Our understanding of canine behavior increases daily, with new behavior studies regularly being
published worldwide. Regardless of what we learn, there will never be a reason to abandon the humane treatment of our patients
or to risk fracturing the human-animal bond in the name of therapy.
Ellen M. Lindell, VMD, DACVB
Veterinary Behavior Consultations, PC
6 Brenner Ridge Road
Pleasant Valley, NY 12569
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J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229(10):1591-1601.
2. Luescher AU, Reisner IR. Canine aggression toward familiar people: A new look at an old problem. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008;38(5):1107-1130.