Vestibular syndrome: What's causing the head tilt and other neurologic signs? - Veterinary Medicine
Medicine Center
DVM Veterinary Medicine Featuring Information from:


Vestibular syndrome: What's causing the head tilt and other neurologic signs?



1. Lorenz MD, Kornegay JN. Ataxia of the head and the limbs. In: Lorenz MD, Kornegay JN, eds. Handbook of veterinary neurology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2004;219-244.

2. Evans HE. The ear. In: Evans HE, ed. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1993;988-998.

3. Bedford PGC. Congenital vestibular disease in the English cocker spaniel. Vet Rec 1979;105(23):530-531.

4. Wilkes MK, Palmer AC. Congenital deafness and vestibular deficits in the Doberman. J Small Anim Pract 1992;33:218-224.

5. Dow SW, LeCouteur RA, Poss ML, et al. Central nervous system toxicosis associated with metronidazole treatment of dogs: five cases (1984-1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;195(3):365-368.

6. Caylor KB, Cassimatis MK. Metronidazole neurotoxicosis in two cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2001;37(3):258-262.

7. Troxel MT, Drobatz KJ, Vite CH. Signs of neurologic dysfunction in dogs with central versus peripheral vestibular disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227(4):570-574.

8. Stern-Bertholtz W, Sjöström L, Wallin Håkanson N. Primary secretory otitis media in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel: a review of 61 cases. J Small Anim Pract 2003;44(6):253-256.

9. Rusbridge C. Neurological diseases of the Cavalier King Charles spaniel. J Small Anim Pract 2005;46(6):265-272.

10. Garosi LS, Dennis R, Penderis J, et al. Results of magnetic resonance imaging in dogs with vestibular disorders: 85 cases (1996-1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218(3):385-391.

11. Higgins MA, Rossmeisl JH Jr, Panciera DL. Hypothyroid-associated central vestibular disease in 10 dogs: 1999-2005. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20(6):1363-1369.

12. Schatzberg SJ. Idiopathic granulomatous and necrotizing inflammatory disorders of the canine central nervous system. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2010;40(1):101-120.

13. Garosi L, McConnell JF, Platt S.R, et al. Results of diagnostic investigations and long-term outcome of 33 dogs with brain infarction (2000–2004). J Vet Intern Med 2005;19(5):725-731.

14. Garosi L, McConnell JF, Platt SR, et al. Clinical and topographic magnetic resonance characteristics of suspected brain infarction in 40 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20(2):311-321.

15. Psychas V, Loukopoulos P, Polizopoulou ZS, Sofianidis G. Multilobular tumour of the caudal cranium causing severe cerebral and cerebellar compression in a dog. J Vet Sci 2009;10(1):81-83.

16. Sturges BK, Dickinson PJ, Kortz GD, et al. Clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging features, and outcome after surgical and medical treatment of otogenic intracranial infection in 11 cats and 4 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20(3):648-656.

17. Griffiths LG, Sullivan M, O'Neill T, Reid SW. Ultrasonography versus radiography for detection of fluid in the canine tympanic bulla. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2003;44(2):210-213.

18. Benigni L, Lamb C. Diagnostic imaging of ear disease in the dog and cat. In Pract 2006;28:122-130.

19. Bischoff MG, Kneller SK. Diagnostic imaging of the canine and feline ear. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2004;34(2):437-458.

20. Russo M, Covelli EM, Meomartino L, et al. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine inner and middle ear. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2002;43(1):22-26.

21. Evans J, Levesque D, Knowles K, et al. Diazepam as a treatment for metronidazole toxicosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 21 cases. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17(3):304-310.


Click here