The emergence and prevalence of MRSA, MRSP, and MRSS in pets and people - Veterinary Medicine
Medicine Center
DVM Veterinary Medicine Featuring Information from:


The emergence and prevalence of MRSA, MRSP, and MRSS in pets and people
Should you be concerned about getting a form of this stubborn infection from your patients—and vice versa? Here's an overview of this increasingly common and concerning bacteria—consider it MRS 101.



1. Deresinski S. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an evolutionary, epidemiologic, and therapeutic odyssey. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40(4):562-573.

2. Kottler S, Middleton JR, Perry J, et al. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in three populations. J Vet Intern Med 2010;24(1):132–139.

3. Graham PL 3rd, Lin SX, Larson EL. A U.S. population-based survey of Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Ann Intern Med 2006;144(5):318–325.

4. Boucher HW, Corey GR. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(Suppl 5):S344-S349.

5. Cosgrove SE, Sakoulas G, Perencevich EN, et al. Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36(1):53-59.

6. Dancer SJ. The effect of antibiotics on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;61(2):246-253.

7. Aldeyab MA, Monnet DL, Lopez-Lozano, JA, et al. Modelling the impact of antibiotic use and infection control practices on the incidence of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a time-series analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;62:593-600.

8. Naimi TS, LeDell KH, Como-Sabetti K, et al. Comparison of community- and health care–associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. JAMA 2003;290(22):2976-2984.

9. Gordon RJ, Lowy FD. Pathogenesis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(Suppl 5):S350-S359.

10. Tomlin J, Pead MJ, Lloyd DH, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in 11 dogs. Vet Rec 1999;144(3):60-64.

11. Weese JS. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an emerging pathogen in small animals. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2005;41(3):150-157.

12. Weese JS, van Duijkeren E. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in veterinary medicine. Vet Microbiol 2010;140(3-4):418-429.

13. Morris DO, Rook KA, Shofer FS, et al. Screening of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Staphylococcus schleiferi isolates obtained from small companion animals for antimicrobial resistance: a retrospective review of 749 isolates (2003-2004). Vet Dermatol 2006;17(5):332-337.

14. Lloyd DH. Reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance in pet animals. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45(Suppl 2):S148-S152.

15. Boost MV, O'Donoghue MM, James A. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage among dogs and their owners. Epidemiol Infect 2008;136(7):953-964.

16. Hanselman BA, Kruth SA, Rousseau J, et al. Coagulase positive staphylococcal colonization of humans and their household pets. Can Vet J 2009;50(9):954-958.

17. Manian FA. Asymptomatic nasal carriage of mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a pet dog associated with MRSA infection in household contacts. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36(2):e26-e28.

18. McCarthy AJ, Lindsay JA, Loeffler A. Are all methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) equal in all hosts? Epidemiological and genetic comparison between animal and human MRSA. Vet Dermatol 2012;23(4):267-275.

19. Fazakerley J, Nuttall T, Sales D, et al. Staphylococcal colonization of mucosal and lesional skin sites in atopic and healthy dogs. Vet Dermatol 2009;20(3):179-184.e

20. Griffeth GC, Morris DO, Abraham JL, et al. Screening for skin carriage of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi in dogs with healthy and inflamed skin. Vet Dermatol 2008;19(3):142-149.

21. Faires MC, Traverse M, Tater KC, et al. Methicillin-resistant and –susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections in dogs. Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16(1):69-75.

22. Lefebvre SL, Reid-Smith RJ, Waltner-Toews D, et al. Incidence of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and other health-care-associated pathogens by dogs that participate in animal-assisted interactions. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;234(11): 1404-1417.

23. Loeffler A, Pfeiffer DU, Lloyd DH, et al. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in UK veterinary staff and owners of infected pets: new risk groups. J Hosp Infect 2010;74(3):282-288.

24. Morris DO, Lautenbach E, Zaoutis T, et al. Potential for pet animals to harbour methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when residing with human MRSA patients. Zoonoses Public Health 2012;59(4):286-293.

25. Fitzgerald JR. The Staphylococcus intermedius group of bacterial pathogens: species re-classification, pathogenesis and the emergence of meticillin resistance. Vet Dermatol 2009;20(5-6):490-495.

26. Vanni M, Tognetti R, Pretti C, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus schleiferi isolated from dogs. Res Vet Sci 2009;87(2):192-195.

27. Bemis DA, Jones RD, Frank LA, et al. Evaluation of susceptibility test breakpoints used to predict mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 2009;21(1):53-58.

28. Van Hoovels L, Vankeerberghen A, Boel A, et al. First case of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection in a human. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44(12):4609-4612.

29. Morris DO, Boston RC, O'Shea K, et al. The prevalence of carriage of meticillin-resistant staphylococci by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets. Vet Dermatol 2010;21(4):400-407.

30. Paul NC, Moodley A, Ghibaudo G, et al. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in small animal veterinarians: Indirect evidence of zoonotic transmission. Zoonoses Public Health 2011;58(8):533-539.

31. Ishihara K, Shimokubo N, Sakagami A, et al. Occurrence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in an academic veterinary hospital. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010;76(15):5165-5174.

32. van Duijkeren E, Kamphuis M, van der Mije IC, et al. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius between infected dogs and cats and contact pets, humans and the environment in households and veterinary clinics. Vet Microbiol 2011;150(3-4):338-343.

33. Sasaki T, Kikuchi K, Tanaka Y, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a veterinary teaching hospital. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45(4):1118-1125.

34. Tanner MA, Everett CL, Youvan DC. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for noninvasive zoonotic transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a canine pet to a human. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38(4):1628-1631.

35. Guardabassi L, Loeber ME, Jacobson A. Transmission of multiple antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius between dogs affected by deep pyoderma and their owners. Vet Microbiol 2004;98(1):23-27.

36. Abraham JL, Morris DO, Griffeth GC, et al. Surveillance of healthy cats and cats with inflammatory skin disease for colonization of the skin by methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi. Vet Dermatol 2007;18(4):252-259.

37. Huerta B, Maldonado A, Ginel PJ, et al. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci in canine pyoderma. Vet Microbiol 2011;150(3-4):302-308.

38. Yoo JH, Yoon JW, Lee SY, et al. High prevalence of fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from canine pyoderma and otitis externa in a veterinary teaching hospital. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;20(4):798-802.

39. Nienhoff U, Kadlec K, Chaberny IF, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius among dogs admitted to a small animal hospital. Vet Microbiol 2011;150(1-2):191-197.

40. Weese JS, Faires MC, Frank LA, et al. Factors associated with methicillin-resistant versus methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240(12):1450-1455.

41. Frank LA, Loeffler A. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius: clinical challenge and treatment options. Vet Dermatol 2012; 23(4):283-291.

42. Bryan J, Frank LA, Rohrbach BW, et al. Treatment outcomes of dogs with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pyoderma. Vet Dermatol 2012;23(4):361-368.

43. Beck KM, Waisglass SE, Dick HLN, wt al. Prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) from skin and carriage sites of dogs after treatment of their meticillin-resistant or meticillin-sensitive staphylococcal pyoderma. Vet Dermatol 2012;23(4):369-375.

44. Cain CL, Morris DO, Rankin SC. Clinical characterization of Staphylococcus schleiferi infections and identification of risk factors for acquisition of oxacillin-resistant strains in dogs: 225 cases (2003-2009). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239(12):1566-1573.

45. Jones RD, Kania SA, Rohrbach BW, et al. Prevalence of oxacillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococci in clinical samples from dogs: 1,772 samples (2001-2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230(2):221-227.


Click here