Perform a complete blood count, serum chemistry profile, urinalysis (preferably on a sample acquired by cystocentesis), and
urine culture. Also perform a careful vaginal examination while the patient is heavily sedated or anesthetized with endoscopic
equipment that will allow you to evaluate the entire vaginal vault.
This usually means a rigid cystourethroscope with saline infusion is a necessity. Otoscopes and vaginal speculums do not permit
adequate evaluation of the entire vaginal vault. And pediatric proctoscopes lack the sensitive optics of cystourethroscopes.
Radiography (vaginography, urethrography, cystography, intravenous pyelography) or ultrasonography of the entire genitourinary
tract can help you localize the problem and eliminate differential diagnoses. Ultrasonography is preferable since it does
not require anesthesia.
Vaginal cytology, aerobic and mycoplasma vaginal cultures from guarded culturette swabs, and pinch biopsies of affected vaginal
mucosa may help better define the problem. Any contributory anatomic abnormalities found are important, including significant
strictures, mass lesions, redundant dorsal vulvar folds, and anomalous ureteral anatomy.
It is helpful to evaluate the patient in a normal standing position to accurately assess external anatomy (are there redundant
folds?), followed by examinations after urination and after recumbency (are urine pooling and scalding noted?). Urine pooling
in the vaginal vault noted only when the patient is anesthetized can be misleading, and the presence of redundant vulvar folds
are difficult to ascertain when the patient is positioned for vaginoscopy.
General treatment guidelines apply to most cases:
- Discontinue topical irrigations.
- Prevent self mutilation with Elizabethan collars.
- Initiate antimicrobial therapy only when indicated by proper interpretation of culture and sensitivity testing. Limit antimicrobial
therapy to cases in which pathogens have been identified as displacing normal flora.
Analgesia and anti-inflammatory therapies are indicated in many cases. A short anti-inflammatory course of corticosteroids
can help diminish vaginal inflammation, but the subsequent propensity for urinary tract infection must be kept in mind, and
problems with long-term use limit usefulness. Thus, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories are preferred. Narcotics such as tramadol
may be necessary for adequate analgesia.
If a specific cause is identified, resolution is more straightforward. Surgical correction with careful postoperative control
of self mutilation is indicated if anatomic abnormalities have contributed to or caused the condition. And the identification
and removal of foreign bodies should cure chronic vaginitis. Appropriate management of chronic urinary tract infection if
identified should resolve associated vaginitis. Therapy of urogenital neoplasia can include surgery and chemotherapy.
If the condition is idiopathic, oral estrogen replacement therapy is often helpful in establishing normal mucosal integrity
and eventual normalization of the vaginal vault. The condition is likely similar to postmenopausal vaginitis in women secondary
to low estrogen concentrations. Women improve with vaginal estrogen application, which is difficult in dogs. Compounded oral
diethylstilbestrol (DES) is advised; the dose is empiric and usually the same as that used for urinary incontinence due to
sphincter incompetence. Several weeks of therapy with estrogen may be required before improvement is recognized. Side effects
are uncommon; mild overdosage results in signs of proestrus (attraction to male dogs, vulvar swelling). Myelosuppression is
highly unlikely if the dosage is conservative (a 60-lb dog would receive 1 mg once or twice a week).
Autumn Davidson, DVM, MS, DACVIM, and Tomas Baker, MS, Small Animal Internal Medicine Service, School of Veterinary Medicine,
University of California, Davis, California.
Dr. Davidson tells you all about puppy vaginitis—and why it's not anything to be too concerned about—in this snippet from
her CVC presentation. Just scan the QR code above or go to http://dvm360.com/CVC13Davidson.